Recent research suggests that, contrary to earlier beliefs, having more witnesses to a violent public incident increases the chances that at least some group members will intervene. Surveillance camera footage of actual civilian conflicts in South Africa, Netherlands and the UK shows that 9 out of 10 times, at least one person -- but typically several -- did something to help. This contradicts earlier beliefs that having more witnesses means less pressure on any one person to take action, the so-called "bystander effect."

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