Seaweed isn't first to mind when you think about how to remove 800 gigatons of carbon from earth's warming atmosphere. But a Maine engineer who grew up in a fishing family thinks kelp offers a more permanent solution than trees because it grows so quickly. Grown from seed in a hatchery, kelp plants mature in biodegradable buoys, then sink to the ocean bottom where cold keeps the captured carbon intact. Businesses buy carbon removal credits from him to offset the carbon they produce; Shopify, the e-commerce platform, is a client.

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