In the Moderna vaccine trial that included 30,000 participants, there were 95 cases of Covid. Of those, only five were among the group that received the actual vaccine rather than the placebo, making the experimental vaccine 94.5% effective. Not one of the five in the vaccine group had severe disease symptoms, whereas 11 in the placebo group did. Both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines work in the same way. They have been able to replicate the mRNA spike protein of Covid-19 that is injected into the patient and causes antibody production of the virus without the sickness (because the rest of the virus is not present). While the vaccines are similar, they have some differences in their testing protocols and storage needs; for example, the Pfizer vaccine has to be storied at a much colder temperature. Both studies managed to recruit diversity in ethnicity, age, and existing presence of chronic disease. Side effects include pain at the injection site, fatigue and joint and muscle aches. Moderna plans to file the vaccine with the FDA in the upcoming weeks in hopes of getting an emergency use status.