Before eliminating fines associated with late or overdue book and materials returns, Chicago Public Library would receive around 900 late returns monthly. Since removing the late fees, an average of 1,650 items were returned per month that were six months or more past due. While the system typically generated around $800,000-900,000 annually in late fees, they believe they have more than made up for it with the return of the materials and rescuing lost patrons. They also saw a 7% increase in books checked out. The pandemic has had an effect on this system, like all others, and while in-person checkouts have dropped, e-book downloads have increased.

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